Servicing woman any age over 18

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General Recommendation No. Initial reports submitted under article 18 of the Convention should cover the situation up to the date of submission. Thereafter, reports should be submitted at least every four years after the first report was due and should include obstacles encountered in implementing the Convention fully and the measures adopted to overcome such obstacles. Bearing in mind that the Committee had been faced with difficulties in its work because some initial reports of States parties under article 18 of the Convention did not reflect adequately the information available in the State party concerned in accordance with the guidelines,.

Considering that the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women has considered 34 reports from States parties since ,. Further considering that, although the reports have come from States with different levels of development, they present features in varying degrees showing the existence of stereotyped conceptions of women, owing to socio-cultural factors, that perpetuate discrimination based on sex and hinder the implementation of article 5 of the Convention,.

Urges all States parties effectively to adopt education and public information programmes, which will help eliminate prejudices and current practices that hinder the full operation of the principle of the social equality of women. Expressing concern in relation to the ificant of reservations that appeared to be incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention,.

Welcomes the decision of the States parties to consider reservations at its next meeting in New York in , and to that end suggests that all States parties concerned reconsider such reservations with a view to withdrawing them. Taking note that the reports, the introductory remarks and the replies by States parties reveal that while ificant progress has been achieved in regard to repealing or modifying discriminatory laws, there is still a need for action to be taken to implement fully the Convention by introducing measures to promote de facto equality between men and women,.

Recommends that States Parties make more use of temporary special measures such as positive action, preferential treatment or quota systems to advance women's integration into education, the economy, politics and employment.

Take appropriate steps to ensure the dissemination of the Convention, the reports of the States parties under article 18 and the reports of the Committee in the language of the States concerned;. Seek the assistance of the Secretary-General and the Department of Public Information in providing translations of the Convention and the reports of the Committee;. Include in their initial and periodic reports the action taken in respect of this recommendation.

That they continue to support proposals for strengthening the co-ordination between the Centre for Human Rights at Geneva and the Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs at Vienna, in relation to the servicing of the Committee;. That they take all necessary and appropriate steps to ensure that adequate resources and services are available to the Committee to assist it in its functions under the Convention and in particular that full-time staff are available to help the Committee to prepare for its sessions and during its session;. That they ensure that supplementary reports and materials are submitted to the Secretariat in due time to be translated into the official languages of the United Nations in time for distribution and consideration by the Committee.

Having considered the reports of States parties submitted in accordance with article 18 of the Convention,. Recommends that States parties take further direct measures in accordance with article 4 of the Convention to ensure the full implementation of article 8 of the Convention and to ensure to women on equal terms with men and without any discrimination the opportunities to represent their Government at the international level and to participate in the work of international organizations.

Considering that statistical information is absolutely necessary in order to understand the real situation of women in each of the States parties to the Convention,. Having observed that many of the States parties that present their reports for consideration by the Committee do not provide statistics,. Recommends that States parties should make every effort to ensure that their national statistical services responsible for planning national censuses and other social and economic surveys formulate their questionnaires in such a way that data can be disaggregated according to gender, with regard to both absolute s and percentages, so that interested users can easily obtain information on the situation of women in the particular sector in which they are interested.

Considering that 18 December marks the tenth anniversary of the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,. Considering further that in those 10 years the Convention has proved to be one of the most effective instruments that the United Nations has adopted to promote equality between the sexes in the societies of its States Members,.

Recalling general recommendation No. Recommends that, on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the adoption of the Convention, the States parties should consider:. Undertaking programmes including conferences and seminars to publicize the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in the main languages of and providing information on the Convention in their respective countries;. Inviting their national women's organizations to cooperate in the publicity campaigns regarding the Convention and its implementation and encouraging non-governmental organizations at the national, regional and international levels to publicize the Convention and its implementation;.

Encouraging action to ensure the full implementation of the principles of the Convention, and in particular article 8, which relates to the participation of women at all levels of activity of the United Nations and the United Nations system;. Requesting the Secretary-General to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the adoption of the Convention by publishing and disseminating, in co-operation with the specialized agencies, printed and other materials regarding the Convention and its implementation in all official languages of the United Nations, preparing television documentaries about the Convention, and making the necessary resources available to the Division for the Advancement of Women, Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations Office at Vienna, to prepare an analysis of the information provided by States parties in order to update and publish the report of the Committee.

Taking into the fact that by that date 60 initial and 19 second periodic reports had been received,. Noting that 36 initial and 36 second periodic reports were due by 3 March and had not yet been received,. Recommends to States parties that they should encourage, support and co-operate in projects for technical advisory services, including training seminars, to assist States parties on their request in fulfilling their reporting obligations under article 18 of the Convention.

Considering that articles 2, 5, 11, 12 and 16 of the Convention require the States parties to act to protect women against violence of any kind occurring within the family, at the work place or in any other area of social life,. Recommends to the States parties that they should include in their periodic reports to the Committee information about:.

The legislation in force to protect women against the incidence of all kinds of violence in everyday life including sexual violence, abuses in the family, sexual harassment at the work place etc. Statistical data on the incidence of violence of all kinds against women and on women who are the victims of violence.

Recalling also that it has considered 51 initial and five second periodic reports of States parties since ,. Considering that although reports of States parties indicate that, even though the principle of equal remuneration for work of equal value has been accepted in the legislation of many countries, more remains to be done to ensure the application of that principle in practice, in order to overcome the gender- segregation in the labour market,.

They should consider the study, development and adoption of job evaluation systems based on gender-neutral criteria that would facilitate the comparison of the value of those jobs of a different nature, in which women presently predominate, with those jobs in which men presently predominate, and they should include the achieved in their reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women;. They should support, as far as practicable, the creation of implementation machinery and encourage the efforts of the parties to collective agreements, where they apply, to ensure the application of the principle of equal remuneration for work of equal value.

Concerned about the continuation of the practice of female circumcision and other traditional practices harmful to the health of women,. Noting with satisfaction that Governments, where such practices exist, national women's organizations, non-governmental organizations, and bodies of the United Nations system, such as the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, as well as the Commission on Human Rights and its Sub- Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, remain seized of the issue having particularly recognized that such traditional practices as female circumcision have serious health and other consequences for women and children,.

Recognizing that women are taking important action themselves to identify and to combat practices that are prejudicial to the health and well-being of women and children,. Convinced that the important action that is being taken by women and by all interested groups needs to be supported and encourage by Governments,.

Noting with grave concern that there are continuing cultural, traditional and economic pressures which help to perpetuate harmful practices, such as female circumcision,. Such measures could include:. Such strategies could include the special responsibility of health personnel, including traditional birth attendants, to explain the harmful effects of female circumcision;.

Avoidance of discrimination against women in national strategies for the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS. Having considered information brought to its attention on the potential effects of both the global pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS and strategies to control it on the exercise of the rights of women,.

Bearing in mind articles 2 c and 11 c , d and e of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and general recommendation No. Taking into consideration that a high percentage of women in the States parties work without payment, social security and social benefits in enterprises owned usually by a male member of the family,.

Noting that the reports presented to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women generally do not refer to the problem of unpaid women workers of family enterprises,. Affirming that unpaid work constitutes a form of women's exploitation that is contrary to the Convention,. Measurement and quantification of the unremunerated domestic activities of women and their recognition in the gross national product.

Affirming that the measurement and quantification of the unremunerated domestic activities of women, which contribute to development in each country, will help to reveal the de facto economic role of women,. Convinced that such measurement and quantification offers a basis for the formulation of further policies related to the advancement of women,.

Noting the discussions of the Statistical Commission, at its twenty-fifth session, on the current revision of the System of National s on the development of statistics on women,. Taking into consideration particularly article 3 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,. Having considered more than 60 periodic reports of States parties, and having recognized that they provide scarce information on disabled women,.

Concerned about the situation of disabled women, who suffer from a double discrimination linked to their special living conditions,. Recalling paragraph of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, 9 in which disabled women are considered as a vulnerable group under the heading "areas of special concern",. Recommends that States parties provide information on disabled women in their periodic reports, and on measures taken to deal with their particular situation, including special measures to ensure that they have equal access to education and employment, health services and social security, and to ensure that they can participate in all areas of social and cultural life.

Gender-based violence is a form of discrimination that seriously inhibits women's ability to enjoy rights and freedoms on a basis of equality with men. In , the Committee recommended that States should include in their reports information on violence and on measures introduced to deal with it General recommendation 12, eighth session. At its tenth session in , it was decided to allocate part of the eleventh session to a discussion and study on article 6 and other articles of the Convention relating to violence towards women and the sexual harassment and exploitation of women.

The Committee concluded that not all the reports of States parties adequately reflected the close connection between discrimination against women, gender-based violence, and violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms. The full implementation of the Convention required States to take positive measures to eliminate all forms of violence against women. The Committee suggested to States parties that in reviewing their laws and policies, and in reporting under the Convention, they should have regard to the following comments of the Committee concerning gender-based violence.

The Convention in article 1 defines discrimination against women. The definition of discrimination includes gender-based violence, that is, violence that is directed against a woman because she is a woman or that affects women disproportionately. It includes acts that inflict physical, mental or sexual harm or suffering, threats of such acts, coercion and other deprivations of liberty. Gender-based violence may breach specific provisions of the Convention, regardless of whether those provisions expressly mention violence.

Gender-based violence, which impairs or nullifies the enjoyment by women of human rights and fundamental freedoms under general international law or under human rights conventions, is discrimination within the meaning of article 1 of the Convention. These rights and freedoms include:. The Convention applies to violence perpetrated by public authorities.

Such acts of violence may breach that State's obligations under general international human rights law and under other conventions, in addition to breaching this Convention. It is emphasized, however, that discrimination under the Convention is not restricted to action by or on behalf of Governments see articles 2 e , 2 f and 5.

For example, under article 2 e the Convention calls on States parties to take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women by any person, organization or enterprise. Under general international law and specific human rights covenants, States may also be responsible for private acts if they fail to act with due diligence to prevent violations of rights or to investigate and punish acts of violence, and for providing compensation. Articles 2 and 3 establish a comprehensive obligation to eliminate discrimination in all its forms in addition to the specific obligations under articles Traditional attitudes by which women are regarded as subordinate to men or as having stereotyped roles perpetuate widespread practices involving violence or coercion, such as family violence and abuse, forced marriage, dowry deaths, acid attacks and female circumcision.

Such prejudices and practices may justify gender-based violence as a form of protection or control of women. The effect of such violence on the physical and mental integrity of women is to deprive them the equal enjoyment, exercise and knowledge of human rights and fundamental freedoms. While this comment addresses mainly actual or threatened violence the underlying consequences of these forms of gender-based violence help to maintain women in subordinate roles and contribute to the low level of political participation and to their lower level of education, skills and work opportunities.

These attitudes also contribute to the propagation of pornography and the depiction and other commercial exploitation of women as sexual objects, rather than as individuals. This in turn contributes to gender-based violence. States parties are required by article 6 to take measures to suppress all forms of traffic in women and exploitation of the prostitution of women. Poverty and unemployment increase opportunities for trafficking in women. In addition to established forms of trafficking there are new forms of sexual exploitation, such as sex tourism, the recruitment of domestic labour from developing countries to work in developed countries and organized marriages between women from developing countries and foreign nationals.

These practices are incompatible with the equal enjoyment of rights by women and with respect for their rights and dignity. They put women at special risk of violence and abuse.

Servicing woman any age over 18

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